The IIRP Presidential Paper Series highlights leading thinkers and new voices in the field of restorative practices, the science of relationships and community.
In this series, the IIRP looks forward to pushing the boundaries of this new social science. Papers explore innovative theory and applications in fields such as education, community health, social justice and organizational leadership, pointing to new directions for civil society advocates around the world.
Creating Cultural Change in Education
Keith Hickman, M.S.
Abstract: Restorative practices has received national recognition for its positive impact on school climate and culture when addressing student and staff conflict. Research has led to questions about producing consistent results and the sustainability of restorative programs. Using a decade of experience implementing restorative practices into K–12 through the Whole-School Change Program of the IIRP Graduate School, the author will argue that two additional resources should be used to improve results: implementation science to ensure that the program is enacted with fidelity, and a human capital framework to maximize resources and provide sustainability. He will show how their use will result in co-created strategic plans, additional identified resources, data monitoring, and evaluation. He suggests that implementation science and human capital theory can help transform the experience of introducing a new program from something that is reactive to proactive. Instead of situations where front line staff, teachers, and counselors bear the direct burden for the effort and are expected to deliver results with few resources and limited support, they will be engaged as collaborators from the preparation phase and supported as partners throughout the process. The results for students could be transformative rather than transactional, offering them opportunities for meaningful engagement and belonging within a school system.
Hickman, K. (2022, Fall) Creating Cultural Change in Education IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 7, 1-21. https://www.iirp.edu/pps7
Using fair process to build online graduate student services
Jamie Kaintz, M.S.
Abstract: This paper will offer the experiences of a specialized graduate school as a model of how to build services for online graduate students through a restorative practices framework, specifically the use of fair process and the crucial role of feedback in all three stages of fair process. Additionally, using fair process and feedback can help institutions to build community by creating strong, ongoing relationships between students, staff, and faculty. These relationships can help with a range of institutional goals such as student satisfaction, retention, and ongoing alumni engagement. While fair process and feedback do have the potential to greatly benefit the student experience and the institution, some challenges to successful implementation will also be discussed. The author will draw on research from others in the field of higher education and use examples and observations from her own experience in creating and improving student services for online graduate students.
Kaintz, J. (2022, Spring) Using Fair Process To Build Online Graduate Student Services IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 6, 1-28. https://www.iirp.edu/pps6
Bruising and healing: The dynamics of resolving grievances
Borbála Fellegi, Ph.D.
Abstract: In our interpersonal relations, both in the communities surrounding us and as part of the processes taking place on a societal level, we encounter conflicts and suffer “bruises”—the wounds that these conflicts inflict. The parties concerned can talk about the injuries suffered or can avoid each other; they can get closer to or further away from each other. This article features models of a Reconciliation Spiral and a Distancing Spiral that identify a range of points in each process that can help us understand the dynamics that can drive movement toward one or the other. The models are supported by established research in the field, the author’s education in criminological and psychological research, and her experience in conflict resolution projects and cases working in mediation/conflict management in Hungary. Stressing that the models she offers are not prescriptive, but rather descriptive of the general shape and flow of the processes of reconciliation and separation that she has witnessed, the author helps to identify key places where specific responses and actions can support creating dialogue for reconciliation.
Fellegi, B. (2021, Fall). Bruising and healing: The dynamics of resolving grievances. IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 5, 1-30. https://www.iirp.edu/pps5
Processing trauma using the Relational Care Ladder
Frida C. Rundell, Ph.D., LPC
Abstract: While the process of dealing with trauma is complex, the Relational Care Ladder offers a helpful framework that focuses on supporting the need for safety, awareness, the expression of feelings, and empowerment for children growing up. The Relational Care Ladder allows practitioners to recognize developmental gaps in children or youth, address immediate behavioral issues, and prevent or ease trauma following them into adulthood. Grounded in the work of developmental theorists, the Relational Care Ladder was developed by the author based on years of experience in educational psychology and restorative practices.
When working with young people who’ve experienced trauma, it is critical that adults and other professionals are accountable for creating structure, nurturing, and supporting engagement and appropriate confrontation skills. If adults neglect or fail to provide the rungs of the Relational Care Ladder, children and youth may experience trauma and a deregulation of the central nervous pathways. Support and regulation from professionals and parents are pivotal in trauma proofing our developing youth. This paper offers an explanation of the rungs in the Relational Care Ladder as a quick and easy framework that adults, professionals, and parents may use. Further, restorative processes are shown to be supportive of this work. The Relational Care Ladder provides appropriate guidance when one’s emotions demonstrate implicit trauma memory experiences. Adults, whether parent or professionals, communicate equal accountability for meeting and attending to children’s or client’s respective needs. The range of applicability of the Relational Care Ladder framework will be discussed.
Rundell, F. C. (2021, Summer). Processing trauma using the Relational Care Ladder. IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 4, 1-20. https://www.iirp.edu/pps4
Sparking creativity: Workplace applications of restorative practices
Linda Kligman, Ph.D.
Abstract: Businesses that embrace restorative practices have the advantage of creating intentional workplaces where it is safe to innovate. Studies have shown that diverse perspectives, shared learning, and experimentation are factors that spur innovation. In a restorative work environment, high support is provided to learn and grow, raise concern, and try new things. With high levels of inclusion and energy, restorative practices can help establish group norms, manage expectations, and develop essential interpersonal skills for collaboration. The author draws on Keith Sawyer’s research in group creativity and Sunnie Giles’s studies that scaffold leadership skills to support global innovation, and shares stories that help translate theory into practice. Examples from the International Institute for Restorative Practices depict principles, habits, and team builders that illustrate how restorative practices can spark creativity. The power of connections, conversations, and collaboration explicitly creates an innovative participatory work culture.
Kligman, L. (2021, Spring). Sparking creativity: Workplace applications of restorative practices. IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 3, 1-22. https://www.iirp.edu/pps3
Sexual assault, corporate crime and restorative practices
John Braithwaite, Ph.D.
Abstract: Recognizing that punitive approaches to inappropriate behavior were ineffective in producing desired change, schools employed restorative practices to learn with students how to recognize harmful actions, deal with conflicts effectively and change behavior. Historically, societal responses to criminal behavior also intended to educate and change behavior, but have had limited success in this outcome, often ending only in warehousing offenders. But I argue that learning remains a viable, if unrealized response, that I illustrate in the areas of corporate crime and sexual and gender-based crime. Punitive criminal law certainly has a place in addressing crimes of this kind, but restorative justice responses offer an opportunity to learn with offenders how to change behavior for the future so as to prevent these crimes. Innovative research and development can show us how to integrate punitive criminal law with restorative justice and other completely new justice strategies.
Braithwaite, J. (2020, Fall). Sexual assault, corporate crime, and restorative practices. IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 2, 1-23. https://www.iirp.edu/pps2
A science of human dignity: Belonging, voice and agency as universal human needs
John W. Bailie, Ph.D.
Abstract: The desire to be treated with dignity is common to all human relationships. This desire manifests as the need to belong, to have voice, and to exercise agency in one’s own affairs. In its concern for these three areas of human need, restorative practices scholarship is beginning to provide a frame for the concept of human dignity that is communicable across cultures and disciplines via the language of the social sciences and testable through experimentation and research.
Bailie, J. W. (2019, Spring). A science of human dignity: Belonging, voice and agency as universal human needs. IIRP Presidential Paper Series, 1, 1–16. https://www.iirp.edu/pps1